看绝望的主妇学句型结构之同位语从句

同位语(Appositive):如果一句话中,两个句子成份所指内容相同,则后者称为前者的同位语。(同位语一般充当名词及代词),以下为美剧《绝望的主妇》剧本中关于同位语的相关例句:

E.G.1:It’s got rolls, muffins, breakfast type things.
E.G.2:Her husband, Karl, always teased her about her macaroni.
E.G.3:My body was discovered by my neighbor Mrs. Martha Huber.

学会使用同位语除了能够对某一事情进行补充说明,以彰显细致周全。它还可以在我们表述观点及宣泄情绪的时候起到缓冲作用,先说出大概思路,如果觉得不妥立马止住,如果思路已厘清,再通过that引导的从句补充后面更为具体的想法。

同位语从句(Appositive clause):若同位语以句子形式出现,则称为同位语从句(由连词『单纯连词、连接代词、连接限定词、连接副词』引导,补充说明名词及其短语),以下为美剧《绝望的主妇》剧本中关于同位语从句的相关例句:

E.G.1:You do realize that you’ll have to disclose the fact that your wife killed herself in the house.
翻译:你应该清楚你必须公布妻子在房子里自杀的事实。(绝望的主妇:S01E07)
E.G.2:News that an intruder had breached the security of Wisteria Lane spread like wildfire.
翻译:有人入侵紫藤郡的消息向野火燎原一样传遍全镇。(绝望的主妇:S01E05)
E.G.3:I just never got the idea that they were really happy.
翻译:不过我总是觉得他们并不是真的幸福。(绝望的主妇:S01E03)
E.G.4:Susan Mayer who lives across the street, brought Macaroni and cheese.
翻译:住在街对面的苏珊·梅尔带来的通心粉和奶酪。(绝望的主妇:S01E01)
E.G.5:But before I do…I need proof that the two of you are prepared to face the challenges ahead.
翻译:我得需要你们能证明自己能面对未来的挑战。(绝望的主妇:S02E16)

在某些抽象名词后可以用that, whether, when等引导的从句作同位语,称为同位语从句。这些名词有: (红色标识的在《绝望的主妇》语料库中均有对应例句:

agreement 一致意见 assumption 假定 awareness 意识 belief 看法 conclusion 结论 conviction 深信 decision 决定 delusion 错觉 determination 决心 discovery 发现 doubt 怀疑 dream 梦想 evidence 证据 explanation 解释 fact 事实 feeling 感觉 guarantee 保证  hope 希望 idea 观点 knowledge 认识 likelihood 可能性 message 信息 mind 心里 news 消息 notion 观念 objection 反对 opinion 观点 possibility 可能性 prediction 预测
possibility 可能性 problem 问题 proof 证据 proposal 建议 proposition 论点、主张
question 问题 realization 认识 rumor 传闻 sign 迹象 truth 事实 theory 理论 thought 想法

我们不难发现同位语从句所对应的名词主要产生于抽象名称(Intangible,想不出来长什么样):陈述某种事实、问题、认知、观点、想法、推测及态度等。这里有我学会同位语之后写出的例句:

E.G.1:Heaven has its agenda that every person we came across in our life will teach us something that makes us more determined and visionary to go through this wonderful, colorful but sometimes stressful and painful life.

E.G.2:Some students faltered in their belief that learning English by watching Desperate Housewives is a practical and productive way, as a result, they wind up with no confidence of reviving the spark of pursuing English Language Proficiency.

刚开始的时候,我总容易把定语从句跟同位语从句搞混淆,后来发现分出他们,有一种方法百试不爽:可以试着将“that”后面的内容分离出来,看是否能够独立出一个完整的句子来。

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